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Tb-Xo4 acts as a strong Nucleating Agent providing new crystallisation conditions and generally leading to the formation of bigger Tb-Xo4 derivatized crystals, ready-to-use for X-ray diffraction. Under UV irradiation, it emits in the green (Luminescent) enabling very easy detection of the Tb-Xo4 derivatized crystal in crystallization drops. It is also a straightforward Phasing Agent facilitating crystal structure determination using SAD or MAD methods, due to the exceptional anomalous properties of f-block elements.
Lu-Xo4 presents complementary nucleation enhancement to Tb-Xo4. Both are mainly adapted to soluble proteins and complexes. This complex is not luminescent and has been designed to improve phasing properties : its LIII absorption edge, at 1.34Å, is easily accessed with most synchrotron-radiation sources leading to an anomalous contribution of about 30e–. This contribution is also important (10e–) on a fixed-wavelength (1Å) beamline allowing non-optimized SAD phasing.